п»їDRAFT August, the year 2003
The Sexually Mature Young as Complete Person:
New Directions in Elimination and Involvement for Young Pregnancy and Parenthood
Frederick P. Allen
University of Virginia
Nancy H. Apfel
Yale College or university
To appear in D. Phillips, J. T. Aber & S. M. Jones (Eds. ), Child Development and Social Policy: Knowledge to use it. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Connection.
More than three decades before, Edward Zigler, to whom this chapter is dedicated, mentioned the dangers of having so swept up by a solitary behavior or phenomenon we begin to consider that behavior or trend as existing outside the framework of the " whole person. вЂќ In an article on mental retardation entitled, " The Retarded Child overall Person, вЂќ Zigler (1971) argued persuasively that both theory and intervention that treat important social actions as existing in a interpersonal and developmental vacuum happen to be bound to become intrinsically mistaken. Although Ed's argument was made at one other time and within context, we expect that this phase will illustrate that it is remarkably applicable possibly to domains in which Education has never worked, including young pregnancy elimination. I. Summary
Adolescent libido and its implications have been an issue of numerous societies across many generations--and for good reason. Teenage pregnancy, teenage having children and teenage acquisition of sexually transmitted illnesses bring an exclusive set of costs not only to the adolescents involved, but likewise to the bigger society. In the United States each year, much more than 450, 000 adolescents grow older 19 or younger get pregnant (Martin, Recreation area, & Sutton, 2002). These kinds of rates have declined relatively from their new peak about 1990, with declines credited primarily to increased teenagers contraceptive use (accounting to get 75% of the decline) and secondarily to decreased teenage sexual activity (accounting for 25% of the decline) (Darroch, 2001; National Center for Wellness Statistics, 2002). Nevertheless, these types of pregnancy rates still cover anything from 50% to 550% above rates consist of Western communities (Darroch, Singh, & Frost, 2001). Annually, three mil teens inside the U. T. (1 in 4 sexually experienced teens) contract a sexually transmitted disease (Alan Guttmacher Company, 1994), and teen pregnancy result in much more than 200, 1000 abortions annually (Jones, Darroch, & Henshaw, 2002; National Center pertaining to Health Statistics, 2002). For all those teens who also continue all their pregnancies to term, 83% of the ensuing births at this point occur away of wedlock (Bachu & O'Connell, 2001), and even in carefully controlled research teen moms have been located to have significantly lower life span levels of educational attainment (Hotz, Mullin, & Sanders, 1997). Most disturbing, yet , is facts that the costs of teenage childbearing could possibly accrue with greatest intensity to users of the next generation. Problems generally begin at birth: pregnant adolescents are at well-documented risk of delivering a low-birthweight baby (Institute of Medicine Committee to Study preventing Low Birthweight, 1985), and so on children often have later health issues and troubles in school. If they are created healthy, children of teenage mothers are likely to show lesser cognitive operating and institution adjustment than are children born to older moms (Brooks-Gunn & Furstenberg, 1986; Osofsky, Eberhart-Wright, Ware, & Hann, 1992). In age of puberty, researchers include reported locating massive university failure, delinquency and risk for early motherhood among the children of teenage mothers (Furstenberg, Brooks-Gunn, & Morgan, 1987; Horwitz, Klerman, Kuo, & Jekel, 1991a, b). 2. Teen Pregnancy Prevention with Adolescents
An Historical Perspective
Unfortunately, the sole fair examining of the history of efforts to stop adolescent pregnant state and sexually transmitted diseases suggests that it is in many ways stuffed with...
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